The flag of Jordan features three horizontal bands – the top and bottom bands are both colored red, while the middle band is white with a black trapezoid on the hoist side, with a small white seven-pointed star in the middle of the black trapezoid. The red bands represent the Hashemite dynasty and the sacrifices made by Jordan’s soldiers, while the white band represents the Umayyad dynasty, which ruled during the Arab Islamic Empire’s golden age. The black trapezoid represents the Abassid dynasty, which ruled after the Umayyad dynasty, and the seven-pointed star represents the seven verses of the first surah (chapter) in the Islamic holy book, the Quran.