The Vatican (Papal) flag, also known as the flag of the Holy See, consists of two vertical bands of yellow and white. The crossed keys of Saint Peter and the Papal Tiara are centered in the white band. The yellow and white colors represent the gold and silver keys of the kingdom of heaven. According to Christian tradition, Jesus Christ gave Saint Peter the authority to “bind and loose.” The crossed keys represent the keys of heaven. They symbolize the power and authority of the Pope, who is the head of the Roman Catholic Church and the ruler of Vatican City, the smallest independent state in the world. In the past, the Pope wore the Papal Tiara as a crown. It symbolizes the spiritual and temporal power of the Papacy.